ACT English Practice - 59 - online test

The passage below will be used for the next 15 questions.

DIRECTIONS: In the passage below, certain phrases are underlined and numbered (Qx). The question will present alternatives for the underlined part. In most cases. you are to choose the one that best expresses the idea, makes the statement appropriate for standard written English, or is worded most consistently with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. If you think the original version is the best, choose "NO CHANGE".




The Spine

[1]

Good spine health is important for every person. The human spine support the weight of the head, protects the body’s organs, and receives(Q1) the gravitational pull that helps with posture. Comprised of 33 bones, each called vertebra, the spine is divided into five regions: cervical,(Q2) thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal. Vertebra are named according to the region where they are located along the spine and in numerical order. Discs serve as cushions between each vertebra. Nerves run along the spine, carrying signals between the spine and the rest of the body.

[2]

There are many reasons why people experience problems with their spine. Some people like us are born(Q3) with defects such as spina bifida, which stunts infant(Q4) brain and spine development. Trauma to the spine can also create problems, in addition(Q5) when the damage is irreversible. Paralysis happened(Q6) when the spine is injured beyond repair, and may result in loss of function in the arms or legs. Another reason for damage is the body’s natural deterioration. As a person ages, the spine wears out. The discs that separate each vertebra lose moisture, and nerves that run alongside the spine can become more narrow, which(Q7) decreases the spines(Q8) ability to absorb pressure, especially when walking, jogging, or jumping.

[3]

Prevention is the best way to maintain a healthy back. There are varieties of ways that people keep themselves pain free and functioning at optimum levels. Sleeping on your back with a pillow under the knees supports its(Q9) natural curve during the night. When sitting at a desk, keeping ears, shoulders, and hips in line while resting the back firmly against the chair helps with posture. Standing straight with relaxed shoulders, hips, and knees will eliminate undue pressure on the spine. Walking with your head held high, chin tucked, and toes pointed forward will prevent slouching. Plus, you will look fantastically confident.(Q10)

[4]

Diet and sunshine are also important for back health, well-balanced(Q11) foods build lean muscles that support the spine. Lean proteins, fresh fruits and vegetables, and plenty.(Q12) of water to keep the body hydrated are best choices for a daily regimen. While Vitamin D is found in many foods such as salmon and green leaf lettuce. The(Q13) sunshine is a body’s best source. At least ten minutes of day(Q14) <14>sunlight will strengthen bones and provide energy to the body’s systems, encouraging the body to stand straighter. (Q15)

Read the passage and answer question (Q1)

NO CHANGE

The human spine supports the weight of the head, protects the body’s organs, and receives

The human spine supports the weight of the head, protect the body’s organs, and receive

The human spine support the weight of the head, protect the body’s organs, and receive

B is the correct answer because of subject-verb agreement. The third person subject “spine” requires a plural verb. A and D are incorrect because the verb is singular. C is incorrect because the verbs “protect” and “receive” are singular.

Read the passage and answer question (Q2)

NO CHANGE

regions; cervical,

regions — cervical

regions, cervical,

A is the correct answer because of colons. Colons are placed at the end of an independent clause. They are used to signal a list of items if there are no additional introductory phrases.

Read the passage and answer question (Q3)

NO CHANGE

are born

of us are born

people such as us are born

B is the correct answer because of wordiness. Strong writing is concise and eliminates more words than are necessary to communicate an idea. A, C, and D are incorrect because additional words are added that are unnecessary to communicate the general idea of the sentence.

Read the passage and answer question (Q4)

NO CHANGE

infants’

an infants’

infantile

B is correct because of possessive nouns. Possessive plural nouns add an s + apostrophe to indicate possession. In this sentence, the brain and spine development of multiple infants is stunted. A is incorrect because the noun is not possessive. C is incorrect because the article is unnecessary. D is incorrect because the word does not make sense for the context.

Read the passage and answer question (Q5)

NO CHANGE

especially

moreover

nevertheless

B is the correct answer because of transitions. B signals an emphasis in how trauma impacts the spine. A and C are incorrect because they signal an addition. D is incorrect because it signals a contrast.

Read the passage and answer question (Q6)

NO CHANGE

has been happening

happens

was happening

C is correct because of verb tense. A is incorrect because the tense is past. B is incorrect because the tense is present perfect progressive. D is incorrect because the tense is past progressive.

Read the passage and answer question (Q7)

NO CHANGE

narrow, that

narrow which

narrow,

A is the correct answer because of which/that function. “Which” is used in a nonessential clause with a proceeding comma to offset the clause.

Read the passage and answer question (Q8)

NO CHANGE

spines’

spine’s

spinal

C is correct because of possessive nouns. Spine is singular in this sentence, and requires an apostrophe + s to indicate possession. A is incorrect because the apostrophe is missing. B is incorrect because spines’ is plural. D is incorrect because the word does not make sense for the context.

Read the passage and answer question (Q9)

NO CHANGE

the back’s

the pillow’s

your

B is the correct answer because of clarity. The pronoun “its” can refer to either the back or the pillow. The passage is about spine health, and therefore B is the correct choice. A is incorrect because the answer lacks clarity. C and D are incorrect because they are inaccurate for the context.

Read the passage and answer question (Q10)

NO CHANGE

And, you will look fantastically confident.

Besides, you will look fantastically confident.

OMIT the underlined portion.

D is the correct answer because of consistency. A, B, and C are incorrect because the informal writing style and the content of the sentence do not fit with the rest of the passage.

Read the passage and answer question (Q11)

NO CHANGE

health; well-balanced

health: well-balanced

health well-balanced

B is the correct answer because of semicolons. Semicolons separate two independent clauses; A and C are incorrect because the answers use inaccurate punctuation marks. D is incorrect because the independent clauses are missing a punctuation mark.

Read the passage and answer question (Q12)

NO CHANGE

fresh fruits, and vegetables, and plenty

fresh fruits and vegetables and plenty

fresh fruits, and vegetables and plenty

A is correct because of commas. Commas are used to separate three or more items in a series of related words. B is incorrect because the comma splits fruits and vegetables. C and D are incorrect because a comma is needed to separate this list of three items.

Read the passage and answer question (Q13)

NO CHANGE

lettuce, the

lettuce, although the

lettuce: the

B is the correct choice because of sentence fragments. A is incorrect because the answer is a dependent clause and not a sentence. C is incorrect because the transition word is unnecessary. D is incorrect because colons are not used to join a dependent clause to a new sentence.

Read the passage and answer question (Q14)

NO CHANGE

day’s

daily

todays

C is the correct choice because of adjectives. Adjectives modify nouns and indicate which one, what kind, or how many. A, B, and D are incorrect because their answers are not the correct part of speech.

Read the passage and answer question (Q15)
This passage would most likely be part of

a chapter about the human spine that is located in an anatomy textbook.

a personal letter from a doctor to his mother about the importance of taking care of her body.

a pamphlet published by a chiropractor about good spine health.

an entry for Spine in a medical dictionary.

C is the correct choice because of purpose. A is incorrect because the passage is not detailed using scientific jargon about the human body. B is incorrect because the passage is not informal communication between two family members. D is incorrect because the passage is not detailed using medical jargon, nor is it written for an educated medical community.