ACT Science Practice Test - 7 - online test

Exercising elicits an acute hormonal response. The magnitude of this response is dependent on the mode and intensity of exercise. Figure 1 shows the concentration of two hormones in response to exercise as measured by researchers in pmol/l and nmol/l (1 pmol/l = .001 nmol/l). Measurements were taken at multiple timestamps before beginning the workout, after the completion of each exercise in the workout, 15 minutes after completing the workout, and 30 minutes after completing the workout. Changes in these hormones were tracked across two different exercise conditions, or modes, defined as MR and FR.

Science lesson Science Practice Test 7 exam questions 1. question pragraph

Figure adapted from Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs. Maximum repetitions multiple resistance exercises by Ahtianinen et al.

In both the MR and FR conditions, Free Testosterone concentration exhibits a trend during the duration of the workout. What is that trend?

Free Testosterone concentration increases at each timestamp during the workout.

Free Testosterone concentration decreases at each timestamp during the workout.

Free Testosterone concentration steadily increases before decreasing during the later portion of the workout.

Free Testosterone concentration alternates between increasing and decreasing at each timestamp.

(A) Free Testosterone concentration increases at each time stamp during the workout for both conditions. Only consider the top portion of the graph as the question exclusively relates to Free Testosterone. Free Testosterone concentration only decreases after the Knee Extension time stamp. Anything after this timestamp occurs after the conclusion of the workout and should not be considered in answering the question.

In both the MR and FR conditions, Testosterone concentration is implied to peak by a certain time stamp. What is that timestamp?

Knee Extension (2 Sets)

Post 30

Squat (2 Sets)

Leg Press (4 Sets)

(C) Testosterone concentration peaks at the Squat timestamp. Only consider the bottom portion of the graph as the question exclusively relates to testosterone. Unlike Free Testosterone, Testosterone does not continue to increase in concentration throughout the duration of the workout. It peaks during the squat before it begins declining.

At the Pre timestamp, is there a higher concentration of Free Testosterone in the FR condition or Testosterone in the MR condition?

There is a higher concentration of Free Testosterone in the FR condition than Testosterone in the MR condition at the Pre timestamp.

There is a higher concentration of Testosterone in the MR condition than Free Testosterone in the FR condition at the Pre timestamp.

There is an equal concentration of Testosterone in the MR condition and Free Testosterone in the FR condition at the Pre timestamp.

It is impossible to answer this question correctly with the information provided.

(B) There is a higher concentration of Testosterone in the MR condition than Free Testosterone in the FR condition at the Pre timestamp. At first glance this may not appear to be true, but referring to the units on the y axis title of the graph reveals that Free Testosterone is measured in pmol/l and Testosterone is measured in nmol/l. As explained in the introductory paragraph 1 pmol/l is .001 nmol/l. This means that at the Pre timestamp the concentration of Free Testosterone in the FR condition is about .058 nmol/l. The concentration of Testosterone in the MR condition at the same time stamp is about 23 nmol/l.

At which timestamp is there the greatest difference in Testosterone concentration between the MR and FR conditions?

Leg Press (4 Sets)

Leg Press (2 Sets)

Post 30

Pre

(A) The greatest difference in Testosterone concentration between MR and FR conditions is observed at the Leg Press (4 Sets) timestamp. Only consider the bottom portion of the graph. There is a difference of approximately 5 nmol/l. This is greater than any other observable difference.

Suppose the researchers added another exercise to the end of the workout in the FR condition and measured Free Testosterone concentration at that point. If the current trend continued, what would be the most likely concentration observed at that timestamp?

Greater than or equal to 80 nmol/l

Between 64 and 78 pmol/l

Less than or equal to 64 pmol/l

Greater than or equal to 78 pmol/l

(D) If the trend were to continue, it is likely that Free Testosterone concentration in the FR condition would be greater than 78 pmol/l at the next time stamp. Only consider the top portion of the graph. During the workout, the concentration increases consistently with the smallest observed increase between timestamps being approximately 2 pmol/l. If this trend were continued, the most conservative estimates would result in concentration being 78 pmol/l or greater. It should be noted answer A is not correct because the unit of 80 nmol/l is equivalent to 80,000 pmol/l.

In both the MR and FR conditions for Testosterone, how do concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp relate to concentrations at the Pre timestamp?

Concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp are similar to Pre timestamp

Concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp are greater than concentrations at the Pre timestamp

Concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp are lesser than concentrations at the Pre timestamp

Concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp vary in relationship to the Pre timestamp by condition

(C) Testosterone concentrations at the Post 30 timestamp are lesser than that of the Pre timestamp. Only consider the bottom portion of the graph. It is visually clear that the concentrations for each condition are lesser at Post 30 than their starting point.

In general, is Testosterone concentration greater in the FR or MR condition?

Testosterone concentration is generally greater in the FR condition

Testosterone concentration is generally greater in the MR condition

Testosterone concentration is generally similar in both conditions

The relationship between Testosterone concentration in the FR and MR conditions is generally unclear and varied

(A) Testosterone concentration is generally greater in the FR condition. Only consider the bottom portion of the graph. At all timestamps it can be observed that Testosterone concentration is greater in the FR condition than the MR even though the direction and magnitude of their changes differ.

A chemist performed two experiments. The chemist had the objective of determining the melting points and boiling points of multiple elements. When an element reaches its Melting Point or Boiling Point, its state of matter changes. A solid object heated to its Melting Point becomes a liquid, and if further heated to its Boiling Point it becomes a gas. If a gas is cooled to its Boiling Point it will transition back to a liquid, and if cooled further to its Melting Point it will transition back to a solid.

In Experiment 1, the chemist gathered eight elements and stored them each individually at temperatures that allowed them to exist in their solid state. Following this, the chemist heated each element and recorded the temperature at which melting occurred. The results are shown in Figure 1.

Science lesson Science Practice Test 7 exam questions 8. question pragraph

In Experiment 2, the chemist stored each of the eight elements used in Experiment 1 at temperatures that allowed them to exist in their liquid state. Following this, the chemist heated each element and recorded the temperature at which boiling occurred. The results are shown in Figure 2.

Science lesson Science Practice Test 7 exam questions 8. question pragraph

Based on the results of Experiments 1 and 2, it is safe to conclude:

The Melting Point of an element is always higher than the Boiling Point of that same element

The Boiling Point of an element is always higher than the Melting Point of that same element

The Melting Point of any element is always higher than the Boiling Point of any elemet

The Boiling point of any element is always higher than the Melting Point of any element

(B) Based solely on the results of experiments 1 and 2, it can be concluded that the Boiling Point of an element is always greater than the Melting Point of that same element. When contrasting Boiling Point and Melting Point values for each individual element there is no observable instance where the Melting Point value is greater than the Boiling Point value. Answers D can be proven incorrect by considering that the Melting Point of Magnesium (650 degrees Celsius) is greater than the Boiling Point of Hydrogen (-252.82 degrees Celsius).

If the chemist had continued heating the elements in Experiment 1 past their Melting Point until they boiled without stopping, would the results be the same as in Experiment 2?

Yes, if tested on the same day results will not vary, an element’s Boiling Point only fluctuates between days

No, the elements are consistently heated for a longer period, increasing the Boiling Point

No, the elements are consistently heated for a longer period, decreasing the Boiling Point

Yes, an element’s Boiling Point is a constant and will always occur at the same temperature

(D) The Boiling Point of any element is a constant and its matter will transition in state once reached. This occurs regardless of the length of time heated to achieve its Boiling Point. They do not significantly fluctuate between days in any way that would change the results of the experiment.

Suppose that after the completion of Experiment 2, the chemist wanted to test the state of matter each element would be in at room temperature (23 degrees Celsius). How would the chemist most effectively do this?

Place each element safely on a heating device set to 46 degrees Celsius

Place each element safely on a cooling device set to slightly below its melting point

Place each element safely in an area with exposure to room temperature air

Place each element safely on a cooling device set to slightly below its boiling point

(C) Placing each element safely in an area with exposure to room temperature will cause the elements to revert to their room temperature state. Given the Boiling Points and Melting Points of elements vary, cooling them to those points will not bring their temperature to 23 degrees Celsius. Using a heater set to 46 degrees Celsius will only bring elements to that temperature, and not 23 degrees Celsius.

If each element were returned to its state at room temperature (23 degrees Celsius), how many elements would be solid?

3

5

8

(B) 5 elements would be solid at room temperature. To determine which elements will be solid at room temperature, first consider the value of room temperature (23 degrees). Then consider the melting points of each element. The elements with melting points above this value are currently in their solid state because the melting point signifies a transition to a liquid state.

If each element were returned to its state at room temperature (23 degrees Celsius), how many elements would be liquid?

3

5

8

(D) 0 elements would be liquid at room temperature. To determine which elements will be liquid at room temperature, first consider the value of room temperature (23 degrees). Determine which elements are solid as explained in the previous question, these can be eliminated as answers. Of the remaining 3 elements, all have a Boiling Point below 23 degrees Celsius, meaning they would be in their gas state at room temperature.

If the Melting Point and Boiling Point characteristics of experiments 1 and 2 were to be generalized to all other elements, which of these statements would be false?

All elements can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas

The element Silver can exist as a gas

All elements exist in different states at different temperatures

Most elements can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas with a rare exception

(D) Based solely on the results of the experiment it is not implied that elements can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas with an exception. There is no indication of an exception to this rule. Each element observed transitioned to all three states at a different temperature. These states were all solid, liquid, or gas, and this implies other elements like silver can do the same if the results were to be generalized to all other elements.

Suppose that after the experiment the chemist made a mistake and mixed up storage of the elements Oxygen and Argon. How would the chemist be able to identify which element is which if both are currently at a room temperature of 23 degrees Celsius?

Use a heating device to determine which element transitions into a gas at -189.34 degrees Celsius

Use a cooling device to determine which element transitions into a gas at -189.34 degrees Celsius

Use a cooling device to determine which element transitions into a solid at -182.96 degrees Celsius

Use a cooling device to determine which element transitions into a liquid at -182.96 degrees Celsius

(D) Using a cooling device to determine which element transitions into a liquid at -182.96 degrees Celsius will reveal which element is Oxygen and which is Argon. This is the Boiling Point of Oxygen, meaning when cooled below that point it will change its state of matter. Observing this will indicate that it must be Oxygen. Given the elements were stored at room temperature, they are both already a gas and will not transition into one at -189.34 degrees Celsius. They will not transition into a solid at -182.96 degrees Celsius because that is neither of the element’s Melting Points.